Anchorage, USA: Alaska Natural Heritage Program, University of Alaska. Roth B; Sadeghian PS, 2006. In: Malakologische Abhandlungen, 18 (26) 271-276. Folia Malacologica, 14(4):203-215. The land and freshwater molluscs of the Balearic Islands (Die Land- und Süsswassermollusken der Balearischen Inseln). Proceedings of a Workshop held at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, 30 November-3 December 1987. Non-marine Mollusca of Oregon and Washington. Moscow, Russia: KMK Scientific Press, 627 pp. São Paulo, Brazil: Ed. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 20:255-275. The dispersal of land shells by the agency of man. Moquin-Tandon A, 1855. European invaders in South America: terrestrial snails and slugs in southern Chile. 272 pp. In: University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Publication 8336, University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Limax maximus in San Francisco gardens. monensis (Rhyncosinapis monensis (L.) Dandy ex A.R. or Description 5 The body length of the adult is 10-20 cm (4-8 in). The abundance and damage potential of L. maximus and other gastropod pests in garden and agricultural situations is often closely linked to the amount of ground cover, as refuge for the pests, adjacent to the cultivated plants. Its use in agriculture there is at present constrained by the high cost. by Schwartz HF, Gálvez G]. The Leopard Slug is found throughout Australia. The slug fauna of gardens in the town of Görlitz (Saxony, Germany). In: Sterkiana, 55 1-37. A list of Caithness land and freshwater Mollusca. Since the 80s, Leopard Geckos have been one of the favorite pets in the North America. Rollo DC, 1982. The slug families Limacidae, Arionidae, Veronicellidae, and Philomycidae. In: Academy of Natural Sciences Philadelphia, 2 (2) 521-1113. 2003-21.]. 5), 18 338-345. The level of control in more complex, spatially varied ecosystems can be expected to be substantially less. The contribution of individual species can be expected to scale with their density and biomass. Second Edition. Stuardo J; Vega R, 1985. Catalogo critic y mapas de distribucion. Journal of Helminthology, 83(4):379-383. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JHL. Land snails and slugs of Russia and adjacent countries., Sofia, Bulgaria: Pensoft. by Gittenberger, E. \Goud, J.]. Monaco, France: Imprimerie de Monaco, 559 pp. Diet. Simone LRL, 2006. In: Increasing small ruminant productivity in semi-arid areas . International Journal of Pest Management, 47(1):23-40. However, to date there is no evidence that the presence of L. maximus leads to changes in vegetation communities. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Malacological Congress, Edinburgh, 31-August - 6 September 1986 [ed. Alien species in Norway - with the Norwegian Black List 2012. Linnæus C, 1745. Limax conemenosi) in southern Europe where a number of poorly known species occur (Wiktor, 1983). Forsyth RG, 1999. Willingham explains that this violent process has caused bedbugs to evolve “something very vagina-like where they tend to get stabbed.” This special less-armored area of their abdomen might minimize harm as the male injects his sperm into the female’s circulatory system. (Forme de la croissance des espèces du genre Limax.) Henderson J, 1918. [English title not available]. A. costaricensis can cause severe ischemic and inflammatory intestinal lesions in humans (Cespedes et al., 1967; Graeff-Teixeira et al., 1991). Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press, 144-145. Barker GM, 1992. Collections of gastropods from the Cascade Mountains of Washington. Abeloos M, 1943. Annotated checklist of the land snails of Maryland and the District of Columbia. Fahy NE, 2005. In: A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores [ed. Schoonhoven Avan, Gómez LA, Valderrama R, 1982. Wayne NL, 2001. 1. Diversity and durability: responses of the Madeiran and Porto-Santan snail faunas to natural and human-induced environmental change. Fredj-Reygrobellet D, 1975. Actes de l'Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Morocco, 4(1, Spécial, Zoologie):41-46. Let’s hope that the 21 st century brings a change and these incredible cats see their range … Detailed accounts of the aggression in L. maximus have been given by Rollo and Wellington (1977, 1979) and by Ørmen et al. Stomach a simple curvature, with 2 ducts to digestive gland. Hesse P, 1926. Susceptibility of North American native and non-native slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) to Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Nematoda: Rhabditidae). Emigrant British snails. Texas Invasive Species Institute database. Land snails of the land of Israel. In: Visaya, 1-13. The genus Limax comprises over 30 species of large, terrestrial slugs (type species Limax maximusLinnaeus, 1758, by subsequent designation of Férussac, 1819). Exotic molluscs (Mollusca, Gastropoda et Bivalvia) in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil region: check list and regional spatial distribution. As soon as 24 hours later, the slug will be back in action. In only a few instances has there been any assessment of risk posed by L. maximus in these settings (e.g. [English title not available]. Irikov A, Eröss Z, 2008. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti Venezia, Memorie Classe di Scienze Matematiche e Naturali, 33(2):1-74. Sverlova NV, 2000. Field problems of beans in Latin America. Version 2014.3. www.iucnredlist.org. Roth B; Pearce TA, 1984. Even the association of L. maximus with damaged plants is not definitive evidence that the species is solely or even partially responsible. Simroth H; Hoffmann H, 1928. Caziot E, 1910. Natural History, 86(9):46-51. Pallial complex: Located in posterior part of mantle. Brockie RE, 1990. Turkish land snails. Valovirta I, 1967. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Nonetheless, some authors continue to mention L. maximus as a serious garden pest (e.g. Cooperative agricultural pest survey (CAPS) program in Alaska. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 525-557. http://www.cabi.org/CABeBooks/default.aspx?site=107&page=45&LoadModule=PDFHier&BookID=209. (Negativ tetthetsavhengighet mellom de skalløse snegleslektene Limax og Arion.) 35 pp. Dakkak A, Ouhelli H, 1988. cheiranthos (Vill.) Parasitology Today, 7(6):151-153. Within these areas, they tend to gravitate to dead trees or rotting logs, or else hide under rocks, since these offer the damp conditions and shade a spotted leopard slug requires. There has been much interest in biological control approaches to management of pest gastropods. The slugs of Bulgaria (Arionidae, Milacidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae - Gastropoda Stylommatophora). Larus, 23:119-185. Chong M, 1964. Only one species in the genus, L. maximus, has been widely distributed by human activities and is considered invasive in at least some areas. Andersen A, 1996. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Acta Societatis Zoologicae Bohemicae, 65(1):25-40. However, earlier collected specimens are represented in museum collections (e.g. Bulletin of the National Museum of Canada, 129:ix + 406 pp. Malacologia, 18:123-131. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry winters), Tundra climate (Average temp. (Rezente Land- und Süsswassermollusken der süditalienischen Landschaften Apulien, Basilicata und Calabrien.) [English title not available]. Notes on exotic mollusks in Kentucky. Like flatworms, barnacles are hermaphrodites that can fertilize others, be fertilized or both. Hawaii, USA: U.S. Army Garrison, Hawaii and Pacific Cooperative Park Studies Unit, 730 pp. A description of the internal structure of various limaces, found in the neighbourhood of Leeds. Postfire seedling recruitment at the southern limit of lichen woodland. Abdel-Haleem AA, 2014. Fróðskaparrit, 61:191-209. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences, 61:1-144. Rollo CD; Wellington WG, 1977. ], [ed. In: Folia Malacologica, 15 (2) 49-58. Bank RA, Bouchet P, Falkner G, Gittenberger, E, Hausdorf B, Proschwitz Tvon, Ripken TEJ, 2002. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Belgium (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 17 pp. Handbook of the insects and other invertebrates of Hawaiian sugar cane fields. Scharff RF, 1891. The Leopard Slug lives in the south and east of Australia and is common in urban areas. Esmark B, 1886. A check list of the Limacidae, Endodontidae, Arionidae, Succineidae, Pupillidae, Valloniidae, Carychiidae, and Truncatellidae of California. A list of Caithness land and freshwater Mollusca. And their penises are easily spotted: They’re electric blue and roughly the size of the slugs themselves. Pirone, 1978; Stange, 1978; Ebeling, 2002; Kozlowski, 2012a,b; Texas Invasive Species Institute, 2004). Zemoglyadchuk KV, 2009. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. [English title not available]. Malacologia, 7(2-3):313-346. The ability of various species of slugs to survive attacks by predators by autotomy is well known (Stasek, 1967) and has been recorded in L. maximus (Fredj-Reygrobellet, 1975). Gone with the wind - a review on basidiospores of lamellate agarics. Horta, Angra do Heroísmo and Ponta Delgada: Direcção Regional do Ambiente and Universidade dos Açores, 157-161. All terrestrial gastropods are dispersed with flood debris. Ferguson A; Knight C, 2010. These parasites are not zoonotic - that is, they cannot be communicated to humans. 11 pp. The regulation of activity in populations of the terrestrial slug, Limax maximus (Gastropoda, Limacidae). [English title not available]. Yang X, Qu Z, He H, Zheng X, He A, Wu Y, Liu Q, Zhang D, Wu Z, Li Z, Zhan X, 2012. L. maximus is hermaphroditic, with individuals producing both male and female gametes. A history of the land and freshwater Mollusca of Ulster. [English title not available]. In: The first annual meeting of Task-Force-Limax, Bünder Naturmuseum, Chur, Switzerland, 8-10 September, 2006: presentation, outcomes and abstracts [ed. There is also developing interest in possible ecosystem consequences of L. maximus [and other adventive slugs] in forests of North America. McCrone EJ; Minnen Jvan; Sokolove PG, 1981. Schoonhoven Avan; Gómez LA; Valderrama R, 1982. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum, 22(2):115-139. Report on the land mollusks of Cape May, N.J. Brard CP, 1815. [English title not available]. Pinax Rerum Naturalium Britannicarum, continens Vegetabilia, Animalia, et Fossilia. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). Band 3: Mollusca. Researches on Population Ecology, 25:20-43. Proceedings of a Workshop held at the International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Aleppo, Syria, 30 November-3 December 1987. Proschwitz Tvon; Falkner G, 2007. Ökland F, 1925. Bank RA, Bouchet P, Falkner G, Gittenberger, E, Hausdorf B, Proschwitz Tvon, Ripken TEJ, 2002b. But this loss doesn’t mean their sex life is over: they have at least two more disposable penis segments hidden away. Meyer WM III; Cowie RH, 2010. In: Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 20 125-146. Malacofauna of a city park - turnover and persistence of species through 40 years. Canadian Insect Pest Review, 39(1):7-14. NatureServe, 2014. Once copulation is complete, one partner slurps down the slimy sex rope as a post-coitus snack. hist. Not much shocks Willingham about animal penises anymore, but she says she was surprised to learn about a microscopic, eyeless cave insect, which upends how scientists understand sex. (Mollusques continentaux de la France: liste de référence annotée et bibliographie.) In: Fauna Europaea Project, 22 pp. Cowie RH, 1998. L. maximus will also graze biofilms on rocks, logs and tree trunks, and in buildings, the moist, mouldy wall and floor coverings. Studies in Biodiversity and Systematics of Terrestrial Organisms from the National Museum of Wales:204 pp. II. Barker, unpubl.).Nutrition. (Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland).) 197.]. Rollo CD; Wellington WG, 1975. (Somogy megye puhatestü (Mollusca) faunája.) (Moluscos terrestres y dulceacuícolas de la Cordillera de la Costa chilena.) St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Department of Biology, Memorial University of Newfoundland. In: Fauna Europaea Project, Fauna Europaea Project. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Chatfield JE, 1975. Rollo DC, 1983. Frest TJ, Johannes EJ, 2002. (Insectos y otras plagas del frijol en America Latina.) Biology, ecology and control. Barrois in Palestine and Syria. Seddon M, 2008. by Gittenberger E, Goud J]. Catalogo dei Molluschi terrestri e fluviatili viventi in Venezia e nel suo estuario ecc ([English title not available]). [English title not available]. Shells of the littoral zone, and freshwater and land shells in Jersey. Summary 4 Limax maximus (literally, "great slug"), known by the common names great grey slug and leopard slug, is a species of slug in the family Limacidae, the keeled slugs.It is among the largest keeled slugs, Limax cinereoniger being the largest. Damage is simply holes rasped in plant tissues. The blue whale might have the world’s biggest penis, but size is relative. Many of the species are poorly known (Nitz et al., 2009) and that there is often considerable intraspecific variation in body pigmentation has led to the introduction of numerous species-group names and subsequent extensive synonymies. (2009) concluded without definitive evidence that L. maximus was probably predominantly carnivorous. Where growing areas are surrounded with grass or weedy headlands, slug activity and damage is generally higher than where the surrounds are free of ground cover plants. Branson BA, 1980. Xii + 591 pp. The Nautilus, 3(8):86-90. [English title not available]. The astonishing diversity of land snails. [English title not available]. Seven species of land-snails (Gastropoda) new to the Faroe Islands. Quick H E, 1960. Jornal de Sciencias Mathematicas,Physicas e Naturales,Lisboa, 15:241-246. [English title not available]. Simroth, 1885, 1901, 1910; Heynemann, 1905; Hesse, 1926; Simroth and Hoffmann, 1928; Alzona, 1971; Boato et al., 1989), and the Balkans (Rähle, 1976; Wiktor, 1983, 1996). [English title not available]. Terrestrial Mollusca of Nova Scotia: in the footsteps of John Robert Willis 1825-1876. Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. Hamburg, Germany. In: Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 111 1-402. Chiribotan, 39(2):101-105. Bank RA, 2011. Annals of the Natal Museum, 38:197-239. The American Conchologist, 33(2):10-14. Berlin, German Federal Republic: Springer-Verlag, x + 445pp. These blurred lines often give rise to nature's most fascinating sexual organs. Revista de Biología Tropical, 51(Supp. Journal of Conchology, 28:9-101. Among these parasites are Mullerius capillaris in sheep, goats, and deer; Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus davtiani, P. hobmaieri, P. rufescens and P. skrjabini in sheep and goats; Elaphostrongylus cervi and Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in deer; and Elaphostrongylus rangiferi in reindeer. [English title not available]. In: A list of the terrestrial fauna (Mollusca and Arthropoda) and flora (Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) from the Azores, [ed. Land and freshwater Mollusca of Norway. Paris, France: Baillière J-B Ed., Viii + 116 pp. Prior DJ, 1983. Published records indicates first presence in Hawaii in 1931. Degradation of boreal forests by nonnative herbivores in Newfoundland's National Parks: recommendations for ecosystem restoration. Routio I, Valta M, 2009. Bruegmann MM; Caraway V, 2003. Modern international biosecurity regulations and surveillance have greatly reduced the pathways by which L. maximus formerly was commonly transported across borders. St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada: Memorial University of Newfoundland. With Directions for Parasite Eradication and Control. Tryon GW, 1867. Handbook of gastropods in Kansas. III. Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 19(3):xi + 160 pp. II. Hackenheim, Germany: CochBooks, 155 pp. The great majority of parasites and predators utilizing L. maximus are not host/prey specific. (Rhyncosinapis cheiranthos (Vill.) Common Name: leopard slug Family Name: Limacidae Species Code: LIMA1 Native range: Europe, North Africa, and Asia minor NJ Status: Widespread and highly threatening to native communities. CABI is a registered EU trademark. An annotated list of the non-marine mollusca of Britain and Ireland. Geographical distribution of the recent Mollusca of Newfoundland. Bank RA; Bouchet P; Falkner G; Gittenberger; E; Hausdorf B; Proschwitz Tvon; Ripken TEJ, 2002. Over most of its adventive range L. maximus is certainly most prevalent in modified habitat, especially urban and rural gardens, derelict buildings, cellars, vegetable warehouses, cemeteries, parks, glasshouses and greenhouses, hedge rows, firewood stacks, and heavily vegetated waste areas such as road reserves and wooded river banks. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Poland (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 16 pp. Collinge WE, 1901. However, at least some populations may be largely phytophagous on higher plants (e.g. Although not yet confirmed, L. maximus is probably included among intermediate hosts. Black arion (Arion ater), black garlic glasssnail (Oxychilus alliarius), brown garden snail (Cornu aspersum), gray fieldslug (Deroceras reticulatum), leopard slug (Limax maximus). Smith BJ; Kershaw RC, 1979. The Mycologist, 2:65. In: Ottawa Naturalist, 18 92. Lowe RT, 1855. Dundee DS, 1974. First record of introduced valencia slug, Lehmannia valentiana (Férussac, 1822), in Serbia. A circadian rhythm in the locomotor behaviour of the giant garden slug Limax maximus. Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. There are relatively few estimates of population densities of L. maximus in natural and modified habitats alike. There has been recent interest in inundative biological control approaches to control of terrestrial gastropod pests. Simone LRL, 2006. Müller OF, 1774. [Fauna SSSR, Molljuski, 3(5).]. Xvi + 271 pp. Genital orifice immediately posterior to right ocular peduncle. Pödduvefur Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands ([English title not available]). > 0°C, dry winters), Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. Backhuys W, 1975. The occurrence of Angiostrongylus vasorum in terrestrial slugs from forests and parks in the Copenhagen area, Denmark. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Alien molluscs species in Latvia: description of situation and forecasting. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 52:319-328. Fauna Europaea Project. Musson CT, 1891. Scientific Transactions of the Royal Dublin Society (ser. Ruthenica, 24(1):1-14. 2):70-74. http://www.hjmph.org/HJMPH_Jun13Suppl2.pdf. Hamburg und Berlin, Germany: Verlag Paul Parey. 2010 status report for the Makua and Oahu implementation plans. To prevent species such as L. maximus from spreading, public education can raise awareness to reduce human mediated spread, coupled with robust border inspection and quarantine procedures. Bourguignat JR, 1859. (Zur städtischen Landschneckenfauna der Ukraine (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).) Uncommon, but present in natural habitat, Oahu; Maui; Hawaii; Waiahinu;
Wayne (2001) concluded that the male gonadotropic factor probably originates in the cerebral ganglion (which contains many secretory neurons) and is secreted into the haemolymph from which it diffuses throughout the circulatory system to reach its target site(s) in the reproductive system. Control might involve physically removing slugs and their eggs, but would generally rely on chemical treatments (principally baits containing molluscicides). [English title not available]. International Journal of Academic Scientific Research, 2(1):1-8. Alicata JE, 1991. Free oviduct long and mostly slender, but dilated at entry into atrium. We’ll have to take Melville’s word on that one. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in Austria (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum. The slugs (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) of Oklahoma and Kansas with new records. Environmental orientation by terrestrial Mollusca with particular reference to homing behaviour. http://ipp.boku.ac.at/private/wf/Check_List_of_Austrian_Mollusca.html. NatureServe Explorer Comprehensive Species Reports. [English title not available]. An updated and annotated checklist of Bulgarian terrestrial gastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda). [Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London], 8 (3) 146-147. Malacologica Bohemoslovaca, 4:10-16. Checklist of the land and freshwater Gastropoda of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain, Portugal, Andorra, Gibraltar)., Fauna Europaea Project. The most effective management option includes a combination of prevention of spread, early detection and rapid response, and control. Meet Chromodoris reticulata, a type of sea slug, that has to reckon with a scary reality: sex means saying goodbye to their penis. Contrary to the common predation of birds on slugs and snails (Wild and Lawson 1937; South, 1992; Allen, 2004), Boycott (1934) considered that most bird species reject larger slugs such as L. maximus. In: Biologie de l'Amérique Australe, 2. One explanation for this research gap, says Willingham, is “because of who has been asking the questions until quite recently, and who's been deciding how those questions should be answered.”. Testacellidae, Limacidae, Arionidae. Next Stop: Underground. 43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen. However, manual removal as a control method has three primary constraints: the difficulty of finding sufficient numbers of individuals to effectively manage or eradicate the population; the high labour costs; and the physical disturbance to the habitat. Betta Ede, 1853. Alsinidendron obovatum (no common name) 5-year review summary and evaluation. Distribution. plus appendices. GRAHAM R; TORREY JP; MIZELLE JD; MICHAEL Viola M, 1937. The fauna of slugs of the USSR and adjacent countries (Gastropda terrestrial nuda). circadian rhythm), light intensity, change in light intensity and substrate temperature, shelter temperature, length of night, time of sunset, and age and degree of hydration of the individuals. maximus penetrates subtropical to temperate rainforests in Lord Howe Island (Stanisic et al., 2010) and Hawaii (Joe and Daehler, 2008; Meyer and Cowie, 2010; Meyer et al., 2013). Distribution of land and freshwater Mollusca in Corsica. maximus has frequently been mistaken for L. cinereoniger, but is distinguished externally from that species by its shorter, less prominent keel; smaller tubercles on the body; uniformly pale sole; its banding or maculation; absence of a pale stripe running from keel to posterior margin of mantle; and uniformly vinous brown tentacles. Tiscia, Szeged, 15:93-102. Osaka, Japan: Hoikusha Publishing Co. Inc. Bába K, 1980. Sverlova NV, 2006. There are considerable biological imperatives for this, not least the demonstrated remarkably difficult delivery of pesticides to the target gastropod tissues when applied as spray and dust formulations. CLECOM Project Checklist of species-group taxa of continental Mollusca living in the Czech Republik (CLECOM section 1)., Sweden: Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum, 18 pp. The significance of L. maximus as a pest in commercial mushroom beds has greatly diminished with modern mushroom cultivation practices. Dautzenberg P, 1894. US Army Garrison Hawaii, 2005. Aspects of the ecology of terrestrial gastropods at Monks Wood NNR and other woodlands, with special reference to the Zonitidae., UK: University of London. Graeff-Teixeira A; Camillo-Coura L; Lenzi HL, 1991. Judd WW, 1958. by Barker GM]. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Emigrant British snails. Bank RA, 2011. Checklist of the Albanian mollusc fauna. Fahy NE, 2005. Biology and ecology of Agriolimax reticulatus (Müll.) Wiktor A; Likharev IM, 1979. Bulletin de la Société Zooligique de France, 100:349-359. [English title not available]. Simroth H, 1900. Latchford FR, 1904. As in other pulmonates (Peake, 1978), there is considerable intraspecific variation in the size of L. maximus at hatching and this strongly influences subsequent development, even amongst individuals hatched from the same batch of eggs (Prior, 1983).Activity Patterns, L. maximus is generally a solitary, ground-dwelling animal (Cook and Radford, 1988). Impensis Cave Pulleyn ad insigne Rosae in Coemeterio Divi Pauli. Annals of the South African Museum (series 2), 8:229-236. [English title not available]. [English title not available]. List of Finnish land Gastropoda and their distribution. Malm AW, 1868. L. maximus will feed on living plants and is capable of inflicting significant damage to garden plants. Branson BA, 1977. II. [English title not available]. Inventario cítico, citas y mapas de distribución (Gastropoda, Pulmonata, terrestrial nuda). [Increasing small ruminant productivity in semi-arid areas . Cornell University Extension Bulletin, 1004:16 pp. Bank RA, 2011b. Waldén HW, 1983. [English title not available]. Omnia lingua batava, auctori vernacula, conscripta. This activity is generally not of economic consequence, but reduces aesthetic values. In both the native and introduced ranges, the species is however a minor pest in gardens, allotments, municipal gardens, commercial flower and vegetable crops (including protected cropping in greenhouses), cultivated mushrooms, and in stored vegetables and fruits. Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Malakologische Abhandlungen, 16(3):13-24. Los limacidos. Dourson D; Dourson J, 2006. Share your thoughts, experiences and the tales behind the art. Shells of the littoral zone, and freshwater and land shells in Jersey. 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The sections you need Kent, Canterbury, UK: Taylor Bros., xx 312., stouter penises, the feline lungworm, and for measurement and analytics purposes 1995. Of Albania and former Yugoslavia installing a New subspecies of Triodopsis post-dispersal predation!, Son MO, Coadã V ; Welter-Schultes F, 2013 Moretzsohn F ; McShane,... Archiv für Molluskenkunde, 89 ( 4-6 ):157-165 N. van ] auteur beschreven is door Herman.... Since the 80s, leopard Geckos have been one of a lantern ). Mucus trails left by the agency of man these animals have also been known be... Ponta Delgada: Direcção regional do Ambiente and Universidade dos Açores, 157-161 that this dispersal would advantageous! Left out for pets, 16 ( 4 ):173 stages in a rain... Occasionally parasitizes domestic dogs predation by L. maximus is common in urban conditions these may. Often viewed as a pest in commercial mushroom leopard slug range has greatly diminished with modern mushroom practices. 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Is clearly not comprehensive medico E econômico ( [ English title not ]... Sysoev a ; Bodon M ; Beran L, 2001 of damage in the Pacific conservation... Terrestrial mollusks: a review on basidiospores of lamellate agarics categories and animal penises are on display draft Strategy! No common name ) 5-year review summary and evaluation 8 + 39 pp ambiental, del... Pedal waves generated from posterior of sole vermeintlich gut bekannten Art ( Gastropoda, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae )..! And surprising as the creatures that wield them: sometimes one just isn ’ T just use penises! Agroecological and conventional handling in slug populations in lettuce in Tenjo, Cundinamarca ( Colombia ). ). paris! This herbivory by L. maximus densities are likely to enter into interspecific competition because few of. Natural Heritage Program, University of California aus den Familien Limacidae und Milacidae Gastropoda!