The guidelines are based on extensive laboratory experience with the other hantaviruses -- particularly work involving the use of permissive host animal species -- and on the limited experience with a hantavirus recently isolated from deer mice. Another study indicates that gently handling of mice reduced their innate defensive responses to visual threats [19] and reduced swimming immobility in the forced swim test - see more details below [1]. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. Bites from rats are uncommon and will typically only occur if the animal is stressed or in pain. The handler wore a laboratory coat that was contaminated with mouse scent from previous handling sessions and clean close fit nitrile gloves that were rubbed in soiled bedding (from animals of same sex and strain) prior to the start of each handling session and whenever handling mice of the opposite sex. Prog Neurobiol. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Nevertheless, this interesting study emphasizes that habituation can minimize handling stress in mice and that mice should be handled as consistently as possible to minimize stress and its effects on experimental variability. Some mice are also very active and may attempt to jump away from the handler. The laboratory mouse has unique thermoregulatory characteristics, and it is marked by differences in metabolic rate, thermal conductance, variable core temperature, and preference for warm temperatures. You may decline these cookies although certain areas of the site may not function without them. The resources available Follow Standard Precautions when handling clinical specimens, all of which may co… However, human bite wounds and skin scratches may become infected and must be treated through immediate c… Longer periods may be even more beneficial. Email: osvpr@psu.edu. Zeitler B, Froelich S, Marlen K, Shivak D, Yu Q, Li D. Chew H, De Lima P, Gonzalez Cruz J, Banushi B, Echejoh G, Hu L, Fischer A, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. Optimal housing temperatures for mice to mimic the thermal environment of humans: An experimental study. Picking up the mice by the tail is routinely used in the laboratory. As a result, the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from working with laboratory-reared rodents is very low. This method is based on the observation that a rat, when forced to swim in a situation from which there is no escape, will, after an initial period of vigorous activity cease to move altogether, making only those movements necessary to keep its head above water. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. In a 2012 article titled "Playful handling by caretakers reduces fear of humans in the laboratory rat" [17], the authors tested four scenarios regarding rat handling, including (1) minimal handling; (2) daily exposure to a passive hand for 2 min; (3) daily tickling for 2 min; and (4) daily hand restraint for 2 min (similar to pinning by a dominant rat). Report a Research Concern. Behav Brain Res. The administration of test substances, such as chemical ele-ments, compounds, drugs, antibodies, cells or other agents, to mice is one of the major methods for evalu-ating their biological activity. Picking up mice by the tail can compromise their welfare and affect scientific outcomes. In this video, we will first review the basic techniques for handling rodents, and then we'll discuss the rodent restraint procedures including manual techniques and methods involving usage of … Playful handling by caretakers reduces the fear of humans in the laboratory rat. 2010;7:825-6, Gouveia K, Hurst J. 2012;140:161-71. Enforced stress also decreases plasma insulin and increases plasma glucose levels in genetically obese C57BL/6- ob/ob mice (B6.V-Lepob/J – Stock # 000632; see Surwit RS et al. 1997;4:118-20. Understanding proper laboratory behavior while handling mice. A standardized tickling protocol has been published [18]. The second is to "cup" the mouse in hand and allow it to walk over the handler's hand without any restraint. We typically recommend that investigators allow their mice to acclimate to their new environment for at least a week before using them in experiments. There are different methods for restraining mice, depending on the purpose of the experiment. Minimize handling: Handle mice gently and as little as possible, especially when females are pregnant, close to delivering, or have new litters. Please refer to our privacy policy for more information. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Allergens: Laboratory animal allergies and associated asthma are among the most common conditions affecting individuals who work with laboratory animals. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. In a study where the responses of the three handling methods in male and female mice in different strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6 and ICR (CD-1)) were assessed, different anxiety and stress responses were observed. After a nine-day habituation period in which mice were handled by the various methods for a total of 60 seconds per day, mice caught by the tail had the highest incidences of the most common anxiety indicators – urination and defecation. Nevertheless, mice (with strain differences) are usually not very aggressive and can be handled or restrained without major prob- … Handling and Restraint Rats are typically docile animals, particularly if they are routinely handled using appropriate techniques. Generally, they also had higher levels of anxiety in an elevated plus maze. The article was extensively re-written and updated by Dr. Goldi Kozloski in July 2019. The competency level of the personnel who perform the procedures 4. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) deliberately breeds mice to be genetically predisposed to have debilitating ailments—including cancerous tumors, obesity, paralysis, a depressed immune system, and high levels of anxiety and depression. Used to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. The researchers also concluded that when a strong anxiety response is required for specific experiments, the cage tunnel and "cupped" on open methods are not recommended. Basic Mouse Handling and Rat Handling includes: Use of personal protective equipment, handling and restraint of rodents, giving injections, collecting blood, euthanasia techniques, plus any specific procedures needed for your laboratory protocol. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Moreover, restraining the tunnel- and cupping-handled mice by neck skin “scruffing” did not alter their willingness to interact with the handler. Mice in general are maintained on 12 h light:dark cycles, for example, lights on from 6 am to 6pm [4] or 7 am to 7 pm [5]. Pregnant mice, mice giving birth, wild-derived strains and mice with new litters should be handled as little as possible. Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling, Synatom Research, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, last modified : 2020-10-17; original version : 2011-01-01, Handling effects on depressive-like behavior, Neely C, Lane C, Torres J, Flinn J. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to refine laboratory procedures and practices in order to ensure high standards of animal welfare and scientific data quality. In a study that evaluated this factor in laboratory mice, the authors reported that the laboratory rats consistently chose a familiar human over an unfamiliar human following fourteen and five 10-min exposures and even following a single 10-min exposure. The researchers showed that mice of all strains and sex developed a consistent voluntary interaction in the ninth daily handling session among all the three handling methods – the tail, home cage tunnel, or "cupped" on open hand [22]. The first (1880–1950) was when mice and rats became common research animals. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to … When considering the temperature-dependence of all biochemical reactions, any significant difference in body temperature is anticipated to impact drug and chemical efficacy and metabolism directly. A summary and overview of the mice and rats used in biomedical research, based on a survey of formal publications. 2018;592:2098-2107, Makowska I, Franks B, El Hinn C, Jorgensen T, Weary D. Standard laboratory housing for mice restricts their ability to segregate space into clean and dirty areas. The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. These were defined in the following manner: 1) The gently handled mice were individually removed from their home cages, placed in the palm of the experimenter's hand, and stroked on the left and right flanks and head for 90 seconds. Temperature regulation specifically affects autonomic and behavioral effectors, including pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs and other chemicals. The first method the authors described involves a cage tunnel that is normally present in all cages. Gloves are also a must when handling mice both in the vivarium and in the lab. For certain experiments, like those that assess mouse behavior, mice must first become accustomed to being handled by humans. The Occupational and Environmental Safety Office reviews all animal research protocols to ensure researcher safety during use of hazardous agents and to prevent researcher exposure to … Hurst and West compared the fear and anxiety responses of mice handled by this method to the fear and anxiety of mice caught either by scooping them up in a “cupped” hand or by allowing them to walk into a clear acrylic tunnel before handling them. However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel … Muller P, Schneeberger M, Matheis F, Wang P, Kerner Z, Ilanges A. Cloutier S, Panksepp J, Newberry RC. Normally laboratory mice have to be ‘involved’ by means of professional handling/restraint in order to perform all procedures necessary during husbandry and/or experimentation. A 2014 case study describes an animal caretaker who had an allergic reaction after being bitten by a lab mouse. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. SeqFold is a tool for RNA secondary structure prediction from experimental data. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory - significantly affects the results if the experimenters were unfamiliar with the animals, but not if they were familiar with the animals [26]. For instance, mice at 30°C have mean diurnal energy expenditure rates 1.8 times higher than basal metabolism, similar to the human situation; while mice under 20°C display energy expenditure 3.1 times basal metabolism [9], therefore, mice studied at thermoneutrality (~ 30 °C) are thought to be a better model for human energy homeostasis [14]. Significant differences between mice housing under 20–26 °C vs. 30–31°C have been observed, in terms of metabolism level [9], thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide [10], obesity phenotype in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-deficient mice [11], and immunity and tumor growth [12, 13]. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. These factors set mice apart from humans in the extrapolation of biomedical data. Cloutier S, LaFollette M, Gaskill B, Panksepp J, Newberry R. Tickling, a Technique for Inducing Positive Affect When Handling Rats. 43: 42-51 [PMID: 15669134;"]). His lab members routinely clutch mice by the tail, even though they investigate the effect of stress on anxiety, depression and addiction. Handling and Restraint Mice are generally easy to restrain, but their small size makes them especially vulnerable to physical injury, not least by the handler inadvertently dropping them when bitten. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which can lead to injury to you — ouch! They evaluated anxiety-related behavior immediately before and after daily handling, and they also assessed the anxiety after the mice become familiar with one of the handling methods. In a study that investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on the results obtained from a standard test of anxiety, the authors found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. The researchers assessed the responses of the three handling methods using both male and female mice since they can have different responses in anxiety and stress. 2018;7:161-170, Rudaya A, Steiner A, Robbins J, Dragic A, Romanovsky A. Thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide in the mouse: dependence on the dose and ambient temperature. The laboratory equipment and facility 5. They also noticed the same response in mice after being restrained by the scruff of the neck. The responses were comparable in the light and dark phases of the diurnal cycle and were not dependent on the experience of the handler. Indeed, stress has been shown to significantly affect heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels in laboratory mice (for a review, see Balcombe JP et al. Thus, the familiarity of the test animals with their experimenters is anticipated to increase the reproducibility in the results with animal tests and should be taken into consideration when planning behavioral studies in animals. Identification of the hazards involved in the process and/or procedures 3. As Hurst and West point out, however, such handling methods may not be best if a strong anxiety response is required. The 18-minute tutorial covers: The impact of handling on anxiety and stress in mice Handling techniques to improve welfare and reliability of mouse studies Best Furthermore, there is evidence that familiarity with the animal handlers increases reproducibility in animal tests. Identifying the proper PPE that should be worn while working with mice. The following discusses specific considerations about handling experimental animals. Analgesia is the phenomenon of pain suppression upon exposure to unconditioned or conditioned stressful stimuli, also known as stress-induced analgesia [30]. In research settings including the regulatory mandates and biological features of mice and rats to male but not female produces... Handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels at the University of Liverpool clutch. Base of the diurnal cycle and were not dependent on: 1 repeats health on. Repeats health screening on rodents housed in the University of Liverpool familiar by. 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With new litters should be worn while working with mice up mice by the tail and typically...